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Assuming that only minor changes occur after a rather stable biofilm has developed, most biofilm studies concentrated on short periods with biofilms growing for only a few months. (29) showed that a stable community of a drinking water biofilm needed years to be established.
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Therefore, drinking water biofilms are considered an important reservoir for pathogens and a source of bulk water contamination (25).
In all of our bulk water studies, the community composition determined from 16S r RNA was completely different from the 16S r RNA gene-based community composition, whereas in biofilms both molecular fractions resulted in community compositions that were similar to each other.
We hypothesize that a higher fraction of active bacterial phylotypes and a better protection from oxidative stress in drinking water biofilms are responsible for this higher similarity.
Biofilms are present in every drinking water distribution system (DWDS), and they are attached to the surface of tubing material of the distribution network (3).
Biofilms can be of great relevance for public health, because many potentially pathogenic bacteria are not located in the bulk water but are in the biofilm of the pipes, where they are more protected against adverse environmental conditions, such as disinfection measures (7, 38, 41, 44).