Multi species and single-species models of fish population dynamics comparing parameter estimates chat kostenlos leipzig book

There is strong evidence for the former and a piece of evidence for the latter.

This paper extends theory of shoaling presented by Landa (1998), which uses the economic theory of clubs (Buchanan 1965).

The findings include that non-patchy feeding shoals formed for defense increase in size with increased predation and decline in size with increased food concentration.

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For schools formed among patchy feeders, increased food availability decreases school size.

The same finding holds for schooling among patchy feeders where an added shoal benefit is defense.